Path to Ruin

There were many steps on Griffin’s path to ruin––many moments when his choices led him to his final steps: up the gallows to his death. Griffin was a gambler, not only with cards and dice in hotel backrooms, but with the calculations he made in his career and the ways in which he dealt with the people around him.

Engraved portrait of Thomas Griffin, Illustrated Sydney News 16 May 1868. Sourced from National Library’s Trove site. Image problems due to original scanning of printed source.

Engraved portrait of Thomas Griffin, Illustrated Sydney News 16 May 1868. Sourced from National Library’s Trove site. Image problems due to original scanning of printed source.

Thomas Griffin was born in Ireland. He was 35 years old when he shot John Power and Patrick Cahill dead in November 1867, and 36 when he was executed in June 1868.

He came to Australia a couple of years after he served with the British Army in the Crimean War. On the ship he met a widow, who had adult children and a small fortune, and they wed in Victoria in 1857. When she and Griffin separated soon after the marriage she gave him half the money. He went to Brisbane in 1858––before Queensland separated from NSW––and arranged for people to circulate reports that he had died, but she later heard of him living in Queensland.

He joined the newly formed Queensland Police, becoming Chief Constable at Rockhampton before promotion to the same position in Brisbane, the colony’s capital. At the beginning of 1863 he was elevated to Clerk of Petty Sessions in Brisbane, and later that year was appointed Police Magistrate at the new mining district of Clermont. His wife saw his rise through the ranks, and hinted at her power to end his career with a scandal. Griffin had to go to Melbourne in 1864, and stayed with his wife, agreeing to pay her £100 per year to avoid scandal––which he regularly paid through a solicitor up to the middle of 1867.

When he made his Last Will and Testament at Rockhampton in 1865, he left his wordly possessions to his sister in Ireland––Elizabeth Griffin had never married, but looked after their elderly mother. By the time he was transferred to be Gold Commissioner at Rockhampton in October 1867, his gambling losses were beyond his capacity to pay. He ‘borrowed’ money from the government salary accounts, and the local miners’ gold deposits, which were under his control and locked in the safe in his office at Clermont.

A lot of the gold he had stolen was put in his safe keeping by Chinese miners, who were preparing to return to China following anti-Chinese riots on the goldfields at Crocodile Creek. It was this group of determined men demanding their gold that caused Griffin to commit his biggest crime yet––the robbery of banknotes from the Gold Escort––that led to murder.

Exceedingly confident, sometimes arrogant, clever and manipulative––he was tall, strong, handsome, with a generous beard and thick flowing hair. Griffin was also a gifted swordsman, expert with a pistol, an avid hunter (on foot with dogs), and a skilled bushman who was tolerant of physical hardship and exhaustion. He was proud of his position in society, and could barely conceal his bitterness for anyone who in any way challenged him.

Bank manager Thomas Hall had known Griffin for six years––including two years sharing a house––when he testified at the trial in 1868, he said: ‘I did not consider him particularly eccentric, not more than any one else; sometimes he let out like other people do’.

From the beginnings of his life in Australia to the end, Griffin contrived an impervious demeanour––he wanted to be known as a formidable character, and he retained this façade until the moment the hemp collar snapped his neck, sending him to oblivion.

Oscar De Satge, who knew Griffin well in his last years:

‘He certainly was very plausible, had a winning manner and a good deal of Irish wit; moreover he was tall, symmetrical in build, and extraordinarily active. ... We could see that he had led a hard life, and he made no pretence to the refinements of a gentleman.’

The Rockhampton Bulletin’s Editorial on Griffin's execution read:

‘What kept him up and made him despise the terrors of the gallows and the punishment awarded to murder both here and hereafter, was an insatiable vanity, a thirst for the applause of men, to be admired as a man of indomitable pluck and nerve, who, though he might perpetrate a crime, would think it unmanly to confess it.’

Rockhampton Bulletin, 2 June 1868, article reporting the execution:

‘Griffin had repeatedly told Dr Salmond that he would meet his death with composure and firmness, and he kept his word. … As he lived so has he died––hard, callous, and impenitent.’

Thomas Griffin on himself, after his death sentence was passed:

‘... there are few men who care less for danger than I do.’

Thomas Griffin’s Fall

This is the true story of one of Australia’s most incredible murders––the first Queensland police officers killed while on duty, drugged and shot by their commander, Gold Commissioner and Police Magistrate Thomas Griffin––and the sensational trial that led to his execution in 1868.

The motivation for the murders was common and quite ordinary, but Thomas Griffin’s crime and punishment––and what happened to him after he was hanged––make this story unique in the annals of Australia’s dark past.

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Behold the man, standing tall in a magisterial pose.

Facing the camera with a straight gaze, his body slightly turned to suggest a confident bearing rather than an arrogant air.

The uniform conveys the sense of his power––the purpose of this studio portrait. His magistrate’s frock coat, buttoned only at the top in 1860s fashion, is decorated with his campaign medals from the Crimea. Braided stripes on his trouser legs, his cap adorning the small table next to him, and his sword held casually in his left hand.

Thomas Griffin is, in 1867, a man climbing towards the peak of Queensland’s power elite––Police Magistrate, Gold Commissioner, and one of the most formidable men on the colonial frontier––he is charming, clever, strong, and carefully proud of his whiskers.

He is also a chronic gambler, and on a short path to ruin.

By the end of that year he has been committed to stand trial for the murder of two police troopers––one of them his closest friend. They are the first Queensland police killed in the line of duty.

Griffin is tried for robbery and murder. His sensational trial ends in a verdict of guilty and a sentence of hanging.

A week after his execution in June 1868, his head is stolen from the grave by three men––a doctor, a bank manager, and a newspaper editor.

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Thomas Griffin’s Fall is a serial story of creative nonfiction, using meticulous research to unfold this uniquely dramatic story from Queensland’s violent colonial frontier.

AndAlso Books will unveil this story, our first serial, over the next 12 months using original historical documents, reports, and images, as well as short stories taken from the wider narrative, to mark the 150th anniversary of the story’s events.